B i b l e   S t u d y

Lesson:  The Passover and the Days of Unleavened Bread

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Scripture Reading: Exodus 12:1-51, Leviticus 23:1-8.

Golden Text: 1 Corinthians 5:7.

1. Who established the origin of Passover? Exodus 12:1, 11. Was it to be observed in the beginning of the sacred year? Exodus 12:2.

2. Is the Passover to be observed forever? Exodus 12:14, 24.

3. Is there only one law for Israelites and for strangers? Exodus 12:48-49.

4. Were the Israelites in bondage in Egypt? Exodus 2:23-24. Was God going to free them? Exodus 3:7-8

5. What animal without blemish was slain for Israelite households? Exodus 12:3-7.

(Note: The slain lamb, without blemish, represented Jesus Christ. As the children of Israel had to come under the blood of this slain lamb, we too have to come under the blood of Jesus Christ for salvation. Many places in the Bible mention Christ as a lamb. When John saw Jesus approaching him he said, "Behold the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!" (John 1:29 NKJV) . Also Peter says in 1 Peter 1:18-19 (NKJV) "knowing that you were not redeemed with corruptible things, like silver or gold, from your aimless conduct received by tradition from your fathers, {19} but with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot.")

6. What happened in every house in Egypt that was not marked with the lambís blood? Exodus 12:23, 29-30).

7. Did the Israelites leave Egypt in haste? Exodus 12:31-39.

8. Is the Passover a feast of the Lord? Whoís feast days are these? Leviticus 23:1-5.

(Note: See Leviticus 23 for the list of all of Godís annual Holy Days in the order that they occur.)

9. Did Jesus, who is our example (1 Peter 2:21), keep the Passover as a child and as an adult? Luke 2:41-42, Matthew 26:17-20.

10. The night before Jesusí crucifixion, Jesus changed the manner in which His followers should observe the Passover. Rather than slaying and roasting a lamb, are we to partake of unleavened bread and wine? Matthew 26:26-29.

11. Was Jesus Godís Passover Lamb? 1 Corinthians 5:7. Was He without blemish? 1 Peter 1:18-19.

12. Did He die to deliver us from sin? Galatians 1:4.

13. Does unleavened bread symbolize Jesusí body? 1 Corinthians 11:23-24. Was His body broken for our healing? Isaiah 53:5.

14. Were there people who did not understand significance of the bread? 1 Corinthians 11:29. What was the result of this lack of understanding? Verse 30.

(Note: Christians understand that is was necessary that Jesus Christ the Messiah was crucified and died for them, but what they may not realize is that it was necessary that He suffer for them.)

15. Was it necessary for Jesus to suffer physical pain, humiliation and rejection as a part of His sacrifice? Matthew 26:62-68, 27:26-31.

16. Does wine symbolize Jesusí blood? 1 Corinthians 11:25. Was His blood shed for the remission of our sins? Matthew 26:28.

17. Did Jesus add the foot-washing ceremony as part of the observance of the Passover as an ordinance of humility? John 13:4-11.

18. Did Jesus command His disciples to teach and follow His example to the end of the age? John 13:14-17, Matthew 28:19-20.

19. Did the Apostle Paul tell the predominately Gentile Church at Corinth that: "Christ our Passover was sacrificed for us?" 1 Corinthians 5:7.

20. Are converted Christians (Jews and Gentiles) to observe the Passover until Jesus returns? 1 Corinthians 11:26.

21. Did Jesus say that "you have no life in you" if you donít take the Passover? John 6:53-56.

22. Will you be "happy" if you know these things and do them? John 13:17.

The Days of Unleavened Bread

1. What Holy Days immediately follows the Passover in the series of annual Holy days that God gave to His people? Leviticus 23:1-8.

2. How long were the children of Israel to eat unleavened bread? Exodus 12:15. Are there two holy convocations during this festival? Were they to abstain from work on these 2 days? Exodus 12:16.

3. Why did God ordain these Feast Days? Exodus 13:3, 9-10.

(Note: The seven days of Unleavened Bread following the Passover, picture to us the complete putting away of sin, the Keeping of the Commandments after our past sins are forgiven. They picture the life and work of the risen Christ who ascended to the throne of God where he is now actively at work in our behalf as our High Priest, cleansing us of sin... delivering us completely from it power.)

4. Did the early New Testament Church keep the Days of Unleavened Bread? Acts 20:6, 12:3-4.

(Note: The days of Unleavened Bread still existed, or the Holy Spirit could not have inspired "then WERE the days of Unleavened Bread.)

(Note: Leavening, for these seven days, is a type of metaphor, of sin. Physically, you are to clean your house and put the physical leavening out. Spiritually a Christian must put sin out of his life. The physical effort of putting leavening out indicates that it takes effort to put sin out.)


Lesson  - Scriptures

The Passover Instituted

(Exo 12 NKJV) "Now the LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, {2} "This month shall be your beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you. {3} "Speak to all the congregation of Israel, saying: 'On the tenth day of this month every man shall take for himself a lamb, according to the house of his father, a lamb for a household. {4} 'And if the household is too small for the lamb, let him and his neighbor next to his house take it according to the number of the persons; according to each man's need you shall make your count for the lamb. {5} 'Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year. You may take it from the sheep or from the goats. {6} 'Now you shall keep it until the fourteenth day of the same month. Then the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it at twilight. {7} 'And they shall take some of the blood and put it on the two doorposts and on the lintel of the houses where they eat it. {8} 'Then they shall eat the flesh on that night; roasted in fire, with unleavened bread and with bitter herbs they shall eat it. {9} 'Do not eat it raw, nor boiled at all with water, but roasted in fire; its head with its legs and its entrails. {10} 'You shall let none of it remain until morning, and what remains of it until morning you shall burn with fire. {11} 'And thus you shall eat it: with a belt on your waist, your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand. So you shall eat it in haste. It is the Lord's Passover. {12} 'For I will pass through the land of Egypt on that night, and will strike all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD. {13} 'Now the blood shall be a sign for you on the houses where you are. And when I see the blood, I will pass over you; and the plague shall not be on you to destroy you when I strike the land of Egypt. {14} 'So this day shall be to you a memorial; and you shall keep it as a feast to the LORD throughout your generations. You shall keep it as a feast by an everlasting ordinance. {15} 'Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread. On the first day you shall remove leaven from your houses. For whoever eats leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that person shall be cut off from Israel. {16} 'On the first day there shall be a holy convocation, and on the seventh day there shall be a holy convocation for you. No manner of work shall be done on them; but that which everyone must eat; that only may be prepared by you. {17} 'So you shall observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread, for on this same day I will have brought your armies out of the land of Egypt. Therefore you shall observe this day throughout your generations as an everlasting ordinance. {18} 'In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at evening, you shall eat unleavened bread, until the twenty-first day of the month at evening. {19} 'For seven days no leaven shall be found in your houses, since whoever eats what is leavened, that same person shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he is a stranger or a native of the land. {20} 'You shall eat nothing leavened; in all your dwellings you shall eat unleavened bread.'" {21} Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel and said to them, "Pick out and take lambs for yourselves according to your families, and kill the Passover lamb. {22} "And you shall take a bunch of hyssop, dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and strike the lintel and the two doorposts with the blood that is in the basin. And none of you shall go out of the door of his house until morning. {23} "For the LORD will pass through to strike the Egyptians; and when He sees the blood on the lintel and on the two doorposts, the LORD will pass over the door and not allow the destroyer to come into your houses to strike you. {24} "And you shall observe this thing as an ordinance for you and your sons forever. {25} "It will come to pass when you come to the land which the LORD will give you, just as He promised, that you shall keep this service. {26} "And it shall be, when your children say to you, 'What do you mean by this service?' {27} "that you shall say, 'It is the Passover sacrifice of the LORD, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt when He struck the Egyptians and delivered our households.' " So the people bowed their heads and worshiped. {28} Then the children of Israel went away and did so; just as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron, so they did.

The Tenth Plague: Death of the Firstborn

{29} And it came to pass at midnight that the LORD struck all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the dungeon, and all the firstborn of livestock. {30} So Pharaoh rose in the night, he, all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt, for there was not a house where there was not one dead.

The Exodus

{31} Then he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, "Rise, go out from among my people, both you and the children of Israel. And go, serve the LORD as you have said. {32} "Also take your flocks and your herds, as you have said, and be gone; and bless me also." {33} And the Egyptians urged the people, that they might send them out of the land in haste. For they said, "We shall all be dead." {34} So the people took their dough before it was leavened, having their kneading bowls bound up in their clothes on their shoulders. {35} Now the children of Israel had done according to the word of Moses, and they had asked from the Egyptians articles of silver, articles of gold, and clothing. {36} And the LORD had given the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they granted them what they requested. Thus they plundered the Egyptians. {37} Then the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides children. {38} A mixed multitude went up with them also, and flocks and herds; a great deal of livestock. {39} And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they had brought out of Egypt; for it was not leavened, because they were driven out of Egypt and could not wait, nor had they prepared provisions for themselves. {40} Now the sojourn of the children of Israel who lived in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years. {41} And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years; on that very same day; it came to pass that all the armies of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt. {42} It is a night of solemn observance to the LORD for bringing them out of the land of Egypt. This is that night of the LORD, a solemn observance for all the children of Israel throughout their generations.

Passover Regulations

{43} And the LORD said to Moses and Aaron, "This is the ordinance of the Passover: No foreigner shall eat it. {44} "But every man's servant who is bought for money, when you have circumcised him, then he may eat it. {45} "A sojourner and a hired servant shall not eat it. {46} "In one house it shall be eaten; you shall not carry any of the flesh outside the house, nor shall you break one of its bones. {47} "All the congregation of Israel shall keep it. {48} "And when a stranger dwells with you and wants to keep the Passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as a native of the land. For no uncircumcised person shall eat it. {49} "One law shall be for the native-born and for the stranger who dwells among you." {50} Thus all the children of Israel did; as the LORD commanded Moses and Aaron, so they did. {51} And it came to pass, on that very same day, that the LORD brought the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt according to their armies."

Feasts of the LORD

(Lev 23:1-8 NKJV) "And the LORD spoke to Moses, saying, {2} "Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them: 'The feasts of the LORD, which you shall proclaim to be holy convocations, these are My feasts.

The Sabbath

{3} 'Six days shall work be done, but the seventh day is a Sabbath of solemn rest, a holy convocation. You shall do no work on it; it is the Sabbath of the LORD in all your dwellings.

The Passover and Unleavened Bread

{4} 'These are the feasts of the LORD, holy convocations which you shall proclaim at their appointed times. {5} 'On the fourteenth day of the first month at twilight is the Lord's Passover. {6} 'And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the Feast of Unleavened Bread to the LORD; seven days you must eat unleavened bread. {7} 'On the first day you shall have a holy convocation; you shall do no customary work on it. {8} 'But you shall offer an offering made by fire to the LORD for seven days. The seventh day shall be a holy convocation; you shall do no customary work on it.'""

(1 Cor 5:7 NKJV) "Therefore purge out the old leaven, that you may be a new lump, since you truly are unleavened. For indeed Christ, our Passover, was sacrificed for us."

(Exo 2:23-24 NKJV) "Now it happened in the process of time that the king of Egypt died. Then the children of Israel groaned because of the bondage, and they cried out; and their cry came up to God because of the bondage. {24} So God heard their groaning, and God remembered His covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob."

(Exo 3:7-8 NKJV) "And the LORD said: "I have surely seen the oppression of My people who are in Egypt, and have heard their cry because of their taskmasters, for I know their sorrows. {8} "So I have come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up from that land to a good and large land, to a land flowing with milk and honey, to the place of the Canaanites and the Hittites and the Amorites and the Perizzites and the Hivites and the Jebusites."

(1 Pet 2:21 NKJV) "For to this you were called, because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that you should follow His steps:"

The Boy Jesus Amazes the Scholars

(Luke 2:41-42 NKJV) "His parents went to Jerusalem every year at the Feast of the Passover. {42} And when He was twelve years old, they went up to Jerusalem according to the custom of the feast."

Jesus Celebrates Passover with His Disciples

(Mat 26:17-20 NKJV) "Now on the first day of the Feast of the Unleavened Bread the disciples came to Jesus, saying to Him, "Where do You want us to prepare for You to eat the Passover?" {18} And He said, "Go into the city to a certain man, and say to him, 'The Teacher says, "My time is at hand; I will keep the Passover at your house with My disciples."' " {19} So the disciples did as Jesus had directed them; and they prepared the Passover. {20} When evening had come, He sat down with the twelve."

Jesus Institutes the Lord's Supper

(Mat 26:26-29 NKJV) "And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, blessed and broke it, and gave it to the disciples and said, "Take, eat; this is My body." {27} Then He took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, "Drink from it, all of you. {28} "For this is My blood of the new covenant, which is shed for many for the remission of sins. {29} "But I say to you, I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it new with you in My Father's kingdom.""

(1 Cor 5:7 NKJV) "Therefore purge out the old leaven, that you may be a new lump, since you truly are unleavened. For indeed Christ, our Passover, was sacrificed for us."

(1 Pet 1:18-19 NKJV) "knowing that you were not redeemed with corruptible things, like silver or gold, from your aimless conduct received by tradition from your fathers, {19} but with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot."

(Gal 1:4 NKJV) "who gave Himself for our sins, that He might deliver us from this present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father,"

Institution of the Lord's Supper

(1 Cor 11:23-24 NKJV) "For I received from the Lord that which I also delivered to you: that the Lord Jesus on the same night in which He was betrayed took bread; {24} and when He had given thanks, He broke it and said, "Take, eat; this is My body which is broken for you; do this in remembrance of Me.""

(Isa 53:5 NKJV) "But He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our iniquities; The chastisement for our peace was upon Him, And by His stripes we are healed."

(1 Cor 11:29-30 NKJV) "For he who eats and drinks in an unworthy manner eats and drinks judgment to himself, not discerning the Lord's body. {30} For this reason many are weak and sick among you, and many sleep."

(Mat 26:62-68 NKJV) "And the high priest arose and said to Him, "Do You answer nothing? What is it these men testify against You?" {63} But Jesus kept silent. And the high priest answered and said to Him, "I put You under oath by the living God: Tell us if You are the Christ, the Son of God!" {64} Jesus said to him, "It is as you said. Nevertheless, I say to you, hereafter you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Power, and coming on the clouds of heaven." {65} Then the high priest tore his clothes, saying, "He has spoken blasphemy! What further need do we have of witnesses? Look, now you have heard His blasphemy! {66} "What do you think?" They answered and said, "He is deserving of death." {67} Then they spat in His face and beat Him; and others struck Him with the palms of their hands, {68} saying, "Prophesy to us, Christ! Who is the one who struck You?""

(Mat 27:26-31 NKJV) "Then he released Barabbas to them; and when he had scourged Jesus, he delivered Him to be crucified.

The Soldiers Mock Jesus

{27} Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the Praetorium and gathered the whole garrison around Him. {28} And they stripped Him and put a scarlet robe on Him. {29} When they had twisted a crown of thorns, they put it on His head, and a reed in His right hand. And they bowed the knee before Him and mocked Him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!" {30} Then they spat on Him, and took the reed and struck Him on the head. {31} And when they had mocked Him, they took the robe off Him, put His own clothes on Him, and led Him away to be crucified."

(1 Cor 11:25 NKJV) "In the same manner He also took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in My blood. This do, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of Me.""

(Mat 26:28 NKJV) ""For this is My blood of the new covenant, which is shed for many for the remission of sins."

(John 13:4-11 NKJV) "rose from supper and laid aside His garments, took a towel and girded Himself. {5} After that, He poured water into a basin and began to wash the disciples' feet, and to wipe them with the towel with which He was girded. {6} Then He came to Simon Peter. And Peter said to Him, "Lord, are You washing my feet?" {7} Jesus answered and said to him, "What I am doing you do not understand now, but you will know after this." {8} Peter said to Him, "You shall never wash my feet!" Jesus answered him, "If I do not wash you, you have no part with Me." {9} Simon Peter said to Him, "Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head!" {10} Jesus said to him, "He who is bathed needs only to wash his feet, but is completely clean; and you are clean, but not all of you." {11} For He knew who would betray Him; therefore He said, "You are not all clean.""

(John 13:14-17 NKJV) ""If I then, your Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet, you also ought to wash one another's feet. {15} "For I have given you an example, that you should do as I have done to you. {16} "Most assuredly, I say to you, a servant is not greater than his master; nor is he who is sent greater than he who sent him. {17} "If you know these things, blessed are you if you do them."

(Mat 28:19-20 NKJV) ""Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, {20} "teaching them to observe all things that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age." Amen."

(1 Cor 5:7 NKJV) "Therefore purge out the old leaven, that you may be a new lump, since you truly are unleavened. For indeed Christ, our Passover, was sacrificed for us."

(1 Cor 11:26 NKJV) "For as often as you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death till He comes."

(John 6:53-56 NKJV) "Then Jesus said to them, "Most assuredly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink His blood, you have no life in you. {54} "Whoever eats My flesh and drinks My blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day. {55} "For My flesh is food indeed, and My blood is drink indeed. {56} "He who eats My flesh and drinks My blood abides in Me, and I in him."

(John 13:17 NKJV) ""If you know these things, blessed are you if you do them."

Feasts of the LORD

(Lev 23:1-8 NKJV) "And the LORD spoke to Moses, saying, {2} "Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them: 'The feasts of the LORD, which you shall proclaim to be holy convocations, these are My feasts.

The Sabbath

{3} 'Six days shall work be done, but the seventh day is a Sabbath of solemn rest, a holy convocation. You shall do no work on it; it is the Sabbath of the LORD in all your dwellings.

The Passover and Unleavened Bread

{4} 'These are the feasts of the LORD, holy convocations which you shall proclaim at their appointed times. {5} 'On the fourteenth day of the first month at twilight is the Lord's Passover. {6} 'And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the Feast of Unleavened Bread to the LORD; seven days you must eat unleavened bread. {7} 'On the first day you shall have a holy convocation; you shall do no customary work on it. {8} 'But you shall offer an offering made by fire to the LORD for seven days. The seventh day shall be a holy convocation; you shall do no customary work on it.'""

(Exo 12:15-16 NKJV) "'Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread. On the first day you shall remove leaven from your houses. For whoever eats leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that person shall be cut off from Israel. {16} 'On the first day there shall be a holy convocation, and on the seventh day there shall be a holy convocation for you. No manner of work shall be done on them; but that which everyone must eat; that only may be prepared by you."

The Feast of Unleavened Bread

(Exo 13:3 NKJV) "And Moses said to the people: "Remember this day in which you went out of Egypt, out of the house of bondage; for by strength of hand the LORD brought you out of this place. No leavened bread shall be eaten."

(Exo 13:9-10 NKJV) ""It shall be as a sign to you on your hand and as a memorial between your eyes, that the Lord's law may be in your mouth; for with a strong hand the LORD has brought you out of Egypt. {10} "You shall therefore keep this ordinance in its season from year to year."

(Acts 20:6 NKJV) "But we sailed away from Philippi after the Days of Unleavened Bread, and in five days joined them at Troas, where we stayed seven days."

(Acts 12:3-4 NKJV) "And because he saw that it pleased the Jews, he proceeded further to seize Peter also. Now it was during the Days of Unleavened Bread. {4} So when he had arrested him, he put him in prison, and delivered him to four squads of soldiers to keep him, intending to bring him before the people after Passover."